United Nations – United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon welcomed the agreement. [23] „A negotiated comprehensive settlement of the Iranian nuclear issue will contribute to peace and stability in the region,” he said. [24] Even before the JCPOA was signed and implemented, the U.S. Congress attempted to hold the Obama administration to account for the agreement by passing the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015, which required the president to certify compliance with the agreement every 90 days. [113] With the election of President Donald Trump, these regular checks have become an opportunity for President Trump to deliver on his campaign promise to „dismantle the disastrous iran deal.” [114] In April and July 2017, the Trump administration certified Iran`s respect, but expressed strong reservations and reservations. [115] On October 13, 2017, President Trump announced that his administration would no longer certify Iran`s compliance with the JCPOA. He said Iran had not respected the „spirit” of the agreement, although he cited only minor and quickly corrected technical violations of the agreement, which exceeded the limit for heavy water. [116] In December 2017, President Trump allowed the U.S. Congress to re-impose nuclear sanctions against Iran.

Congress allowed the deadline to pass without action, so that the agreement remained intact. In January 2018, President Trump again criticized the agreement. Although he agreed to extend the lifting of sanctions, he called on European allies to „cooperate with the United States to address significant shortcomings in the agreement” or to address the US withdrawal from the JCPOA. [117] The JCPOA, signed in July 2015 and entered into force the following January, imposes restrictions on Iran`s civilian nuclear enrichment program. China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States – the five permanent members of the UN Security Council – negotiated the agreement with Germany; Together, they were known as P5-1. During nearly two years of negotiations, the Obama administration has said it wants to put off Iran`s nuclear program so that if Iran pursues a nuclear weapon, the time it would take to produce enough fissile material, an indicator known as the „escape period,” would be at least a year (before). (To reach a nuclear weapon, it would also require technology to turn that weapon into an explosive device that fits a warhead.) Trump ran for president and criticized the deal, and the expectation that the U.S. would pull out of the deal discouraged trade and investment. Trade between the EU and Iran reached more than 20 billion euros a year before the U.S. withdrawal, but many large European companies have moved away from Iranian markets for fear of U.S. sanctions. South Korea – welcomed this framework of a nuclear agreement.

[44] Over the next five years, Iran entered into several nuclear technology contracts with foreign suppliers and invested in the execration and deseucation of its personnel. In 1976, Iran paid $1 billion for a 10% stake in the Eurodif Tricastin uranium enrichment plant in France and a 15% stake in the RTZ uranium mine in Rossing, Namibia. [3] Tehran signed a $700 million contract to purchase yellow uranium cakes from South Africa and sent Iranian technicians abroad for their nuclear training. [4] At the time of the 1979 revolution, Iran had developed an impressive base capability in nuclear technologies. After President Trump`s election in November 2016, supporters of the deal feared that the deal, which they saw as a victory for world peace, would be threatened. On 8 November 2011, the IAEA released a security report that describes for the first time in more detail Iran`s secret nuclear weapons programme.

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