Pulliainen K (1963) A world trade study: an econometric model of the pattern of the commodity flows of international trade in 1948-60. Economiska Samfundets Tidskrift 16:78-91 Disdier AC, Fontagné L, Mimouni M (2008) The impact of regulations on agricultural trade: evidence from the SPS and TBT agreements. At J Agric Econ 90 (2):336-350 The South Asian Free Trade Agreement is a free trade association aimed at reducing intra-regional tariffs between the seven member states, including Pakistan. These countries are located on the same geographical site and have relatively low environmental policies and accessibility rates. The results show the impact of the free trade agreement on Pakistani exports in recent years. Indeed, a 5% increase in the free trade agreement will increase the value of exports by 0.614. The warning sign of the FTA coefficient is positive and statistically significant for the export model and is not significant for the import model. The outcome of the process was similar to that of OECD countries for the export model. In addition, the results are different in the import model; NTB, EPS and COST of importing countries have a negative and statistically significant impact on imports. Haveman JD, Shatz HJ (2004a) Trade barriers of industrialized and least developed countries: the current situation. J Econ Integr 19:230-270 Pakistan has the following goals: to increase annual exports to $35 billion; improving export competitiveness; the shift from a factor-based economy to one based on efficiency and innovation; increase the share of key players in regional trade in order to achieve the above objectives.
Genç M, Law D (2014) A gravitational model of trade barriers in New Zealand. The Treasury, Wellington Okabe M (2015) Impact of free trade agreements on trade in East Asia. In: ERIA Discussion Paper Series. 1 (48) Khouilid M, Echaoui A (2017) The impact of non-tariff measures on Moroccan foreign trade: a comparison between developed and developing countries. IOSR J Econ Fin 8(3):48-57 Many researchers study the impact of environmental policy on trade (Grossman and Krueger, 1993b). Lan et al. (2017) examined the link between the stringency of environmental regulation and the demand for goods and services and found that increased fees lead to a reduction in supply for established firms. Walter (1973) studies the pollution content of U.S. trade using input-output analysis. Their results are significant and show that the pollution content of US exports is 1.75% of total exports, while the pollution content of US imports is 1.52% of total imports. In contrast, Kozluk and Timiliotis (2016) find that environmental policy is not a key driver of international business models.
Van Beers and van den Bergh (1997) use a gravity model to study the impact of relatively strict environmental legislation on a country`s exports and imports. For trade flows in pollutant-intensive goods, it is used as an independent variable. However, it has not affected the export of pollutant-intensive goods through a relatively strict environmental policy. In 2016, Pakistan exported $24.2 billion and imported $48.1 billion, resulting in a negative trade balance of $23.9 billion. Moreover, Pakistan`s GDP was $278 billion and GDP per capita was $5,24,000. Over the past 10 years, Pakistan`s exports have declined at an annualized rate of -4.1%, from $29.1 billion in 2011 to $24.2 billion in 2016, and Pakistani imports have increased at an annualized rate of 1.3%, from $44.6 billion in 2011 to $48.1 billion in 2016. . .
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